Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,

United Nations Office at Geneva,

CH 1211 Geneva 10,



31 January 2024.

Dear Sir/Madam,


RE: Climate Peace Alliance’s (CPA) Submission to the UN Secretary General’s Analytical Study on Loss and Damage from the Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Human Rights

  1. Introduction

Climate Peace Alliance, a UK organization dedicated to addressing the intersection of climate justice and violent conflicts, welcomes the opportunity to contribute to the Secretary-General’s analytical study on the impact of loss and damage from the adverse effects of climate change on human rights. As an organization committed to fostering sustainable peace, we recognize the urgency of exploring equity-based approaches to mitigate these impacts. We also believe that loss and damage represents a critical, yet often overlooked, aspect of the human rights crisis fueled by climate change. In response to Human Rights Council resolution 53/6, Climate Peace Alliance underscores the importance of averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage associated with climate change. The resolution’s call for an analytical study aligns with our mission to advocate for the rights of vulnerable populations disproportionately affected by the adverse consequences of climate change.

  1. Climate change and loss of human rights

The direct link between climate change and human rights cannot be overstated. Extreme weather events and slow-onset impacts significantly impede the full enjoyment of human rights, particularly in vulnerable regions. Climate-induced displacement, food insecurity, and water scarcity are among the challenges exacerbating existing inequalities. Also, loss and damage, encompassing both irreversible harms and ongoing impacts of climate change, poses a significant threat to the full enjoyment of a range of human rights. These include:

  • Right to life and health: Extreme weather events and slow-onset disasters like rising sea levels and desertification displace communities, destroy livelihoods, and exacerbate existing health vulnerabilities.
  • Right to food and water: Climate change disrupts agricultural systems, leading to food insecurity and water scarcity, particularly in vulnerable regions.
  • Right to housing and property: Climate-induced displacement and infrastructure damage leave millions homeless and dispossessed.
  • Right to self-determination: Loss of land, resources, and cultural heritage underminesthe ability of communities to govern themselves and maintain their way of
  • Right to a safe and healthy environment: Climate change itself constitutes a violation of this right, jeopardizing the very foundation of human well-being.

The impacts of loss and damage are not equally distributed. Developing countries, particularly those with limited adaptive capacity, bear the brunt of the consequences despite contributing the least to the problem. This historical and ongoing injustice necessitates an equity-based approach to addressing loss and damage.

  1. Equity-based Approaches and Solutions

CPA proposes the following equity-based approaches and solutions:

  • Recognition and Accountability: Acknowledge the historical responsibility of high-emitting countries and their obligation to provide financial and technical support to vulnerable nations experiencing loss and damage.
  • Financing Mechanisms: Establish dedicated funding mechanisms, such as a Loss and Damage Finance Facility, to support adaptation, rehabilitation, and compensation for loss and damage in developing countries.
  • Technology Transfer and Capacity Building: Facilitate the transfer of climate-resilient technologies and build local capacity to manage and adapt to climate
  • Community-driven Solutions: Prioritize community-led approaches to addressing loss and damage, ensuring that local voices and knowledge inform decision-making.
  • Preventative measures: Invest in ambitious mitigation efforts to avert further loss and damage, prioritizing a just transition to a low-carbon future.

Climate Peace Alliance asserts that equity must be a guiding principle in addressing loss and damage. Again, vulnerable countries and populations, often least responsible for climate change, bear the brunt of its consequences. We advocate for fair resource allocation, technology transfer, and capacity-building, emphasizing the need for a just distribution of responsibilities.

  1. Climate Justice and Conflict Prevention

Our work at the intersection of climate justice and violent conflicts underscores the potential escalation of conflicts due to climate-induced loss and damage. Climate change exacerbates existing tensions and resource competition, making it imperative to integrate climate justice into conflict prevention efforts. We propose strategies for early intervention and cooperation to build resilient communities.

  1. Call to Action

Climate Peace Alliance urges Member States, UN agencies, and stakeholders to prioritize climate justice and human rights in their policies and actions. Increased funding for vulnerable regions, technology transfer to enhance adaptive capacities, and robust capacity-building initiatives are essential. It is our collective responsibility to address the root causes of climate-induced conflicts and empower communities to withstand the challenges posed by climate change.

  1. Conclusion

Loss and damage is a complex and multifaceted challenge, demanding a comprehensive and equitable response. By recognizing the human rights dimensions of loss and damage, prioritizing equity, and implementing the proposed solutions, we can build a more just and resilient future for all. Climate Peace Alliance is grateful for the opportunity to contribute to the UN’s analytical study. By emphasizing equity-based approaches, recognizing the link between climate change and human rights, and promoting conflict prevention through climate justice, we hope to contribute meaningful insights to inform policies that protect the most vulnerable in the face of climate-induced loss and damage.

Please accept the assurances of our highest esteem.


Yours sincerely,



Seun Solomon Bakare

Executive Director